Operating in total secrecy, the mint was located in upstate New York, about 60 miles north of New York City. Most of its minting activities were done at night, under cover of darkness. Despite this, the number of counterfeits that the clandestine mint struck were prolific ... ...

William Wood was a person of considerable wealth and financial standing. Throughout the west of England, he owned numerous profitable iron and copper mines. Known as a shrewd businessman, in addition to his ventures in mining

Born in Germany on September 9th 1832, Johan “John’ Marr entered the engraving business at a very young age.  Young, destitute, and barely a teenager, Marr found himself forced to live with a jeweler and engraver. In exchange for room and board, Marr was hired to care for the jeweler’s

During the midst of the Civil War, engravers and die-smiths Mossin and Marr of Milwaukee Wisconsin were responsible for producing many of Wisconsin’s Civil War Tokens. Representative of their talent and beautiful work

On or about the early 1820s Richard Trested, an English immigrant, established a die-sinking business at 70 William Street in New York City†. For approximately eight years thereafter, Trested operated his die-sinking business

In 1910 Howland Wood published an article in The Numismatist entitled ‘The Canadian Blacksmith Coppers.’ Blacksmith Coppers are contemporary counterfeits of evasion tokens, produced from the early 19th century until about the 1840’s.

Most collectors of Hard Times Tokens and Store Cards are aware of the one cent pieces made by Dr. Lewis Feuchtwanger. Other more experienced collectors may be aware of the three cent pieces made by the same.

Feuchtwanger’s Composition Cent – Attribution & Die Marriages

After the panic of 1837 and the subsequent 5 year depression thereafter known as the Hard Times, Lewis Feuchtwanger, a pharmacist, issued tokens made of German Silver, an alloy primarily made of copper, nickel, tin, and zinc.