An enigma has long existed about the origin of the Vote the Land Free token. Many numismatists believed it originated from the abolitionist Free Soil Party. A new theory explores if it was issued by the National Reform Association - a slightly earlier and short-lived movement....

Shortly before the American Civil War, an Irish nationalist militia was formed in the United States. Founded by Irish immigrants John O’Mahony and Michael Doheny, it was known as the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Situated as an arm of the Ireland-based Irish Republican Brotherhood, it was an organization whose goal was

History clearly records that the 1860 Presidential Race was a pivotal moment for the future of the United States. The movement for the abolition of slavery was not a quick phenomena, but rather one which took decades......

Die Sozial-Demokratische Turngemeide was founded in 1849 in Baltimore Maryland. Among several German organizations in mid-18th century Baltimore, the club served as a social outlet for German emigrants who lived in the city

Born 1800 into a family with deeply religious convictions, John Brown was raised by a father who was ardently opposed to the institution of slavery. Puritans by faith, his family moved from his birthplace in Connecticut to northern Ohio when he was just five

Being relatively inexpensive to produce, 19th-Century American tokens were a common and popular way to express political opinion and ideologies. Given their diminutive size and ease of dissemination, tokens were perfect messengers

During the middle part of the 19th century Anti-Liquor sentiments were quite predominant in the United States. Known as the ‘Temperance Movement’, it was believed that many of the ills of society [at the time] could be directly attributable to the consumption of alcohol. More fundamentally, it was believed that