Nathan C. Folger, New Orleans, 1850s

Of the many token varieties listed in Wright, Adams, Miller, and Rulau, few are as challenging to attribute than the merchant token varieties of Nathan C. Folger. Numismatists will find that this is not because Folger's emissions consist of a vast number of obscure differences ...

In the latter half of the 18th century, adequate circulating copper coins throughout the UK were in dire shortage. Private tokens known as Conders were struck to meet the public's need for low-denominated copper. This guide catalogs a significant portion of these Conder tokens...

There exists very little documentation about the 1788 Barbadoes copper penny emissions. What does exist is scant, and from a diagnostic perspective, it is quite difficult to casually and easily attribute a specific variety when an example is encountered ......

Operating in total secrecy, the mint was located in upstate New York, about 60 miles north of New York City. Most of its minting activities were done at night, under cover of darkness. Despite this, the number of counterfeits that the clandestine mint struck were prolific ... ...

The old adage “Buy the book before you buy the coin” most certainly applies for those who wish to pursue tokens and exonumia. While there are vast quantities of books which have been published that address U.S. Federal emissions, comparatively very few references exist which address tokens

Fuld 160-471b Liberty For All, America

Early in 1862 all United States coins disappeared from circulation. The general public, concerned about possible increases in values of all metals, began hoarding their change. First gold and silver coins disappeared from circulation.

There exist multiple scales for measuring relative rarities of various numismatic specimens. At glance they may appear cumbersome, redundant, and somewhat complicated. However, the scales weren’t invented to confuse collectors.

Among the various pre-Copper Federal Coinages, the Nova Constellatio varieties of 1783, 1785, and 1786 are some of the most frequently encountered and popularly collected. Although numerous texts have been written that illustrate the known 12 varieties, unfortunately no simple attribution guide has been encountered to date that succinctly and

Feuchtwanger’s Composition Cent – Attribution & Die Marriages

After the panic of 1837 and the subsequent 5 year depression thereafter known as the Hard Times, Lewis Feuchtwanger, a pharmacist, issued tokens made of German Silver, an alloy primarily made of copper, nickel, tin, and zinc.