Shortly before the American Civil War, an Irish nationalist militia was formed in the United States. Founded by Irish immigrants John O’Mahony and Michael Doheny, it was known as the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Situated as an arm of the Ireland-based Irish Republican Brotherhood, it was an organization whose goal was

In 1910 Howland Wood published an article in The Numismatist entitled ‘The Canadian Blacksmith Coppers.’ Blacksmith Coppers are contemporary counterfeits of evasion tokens, produced from the early 19th century until about the 1840’s.